The Parque Nacional da Tijuca (Tijuca or Parna-PNT) with its 3.953ha area, is a fragment of the Atlantic Forest biome and an integral part of the Biosphere Reserve in Rio de Janeiro. Created on July 6, 1961, is currently the most visited national park in Brazil, receiving over 2 million visitors per year. Divided into four sectors (Tijuca Forest, the Serra da Carioca, Pedra Bonita / Pedra da Gávea and Black Liners / Covanca), the Park represents about 3.5% of the city of Rio de Janeiro area. Stands out in the landscape by themselves constitute a large mass? Green ?, located in the center of a metropolis with about six million inhabitants.
Throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the area where today stands the Tijuca National Park was mostly, ravaged by timber extraction and utilization in monocultures, especially the coffee, causing serious environmental problems in the city. In 1861, a conservation initiative pioneered ordered by D. Pedro II, a process of territorial dispossession and reforestation led to the regeneration of natural vegetation, resulting in a lush forest that exists today. Even secondary, this forest plays an important role in the conservation of many species of flora and fauna, also harboring endemic, rare and / or endangered species.
Numerous environmental services offered by the park are key to the city, such as the maintenance of water sources; erosion control; alleviation of flooding; the attenuation of thermal fluctuations; local climate regulation; reducing air and noise pollution and maintaining the aesthetics of the local natural environment. Its mountainous terrain and the presence of very steep slopes, which highlights the Pico da Tijuca, with 1021 meters, the Serra da Carioca, where is the Corcovado , 710 meters, the Pedra Bonita / Pedra da Gavea, and the Serra dos-Liners Black & Covanca, together give the Tijuca National Park a unique scenic beauty, contrasting the green of the forest with rocky surfaces and the sea. The natural heritage is undoubtedly the best known and enshrined in the park, but its human occupation over four centuries, created a valuable historical and cultural heritage which today constitutes an important collection to be preserved. Through the years, the Tijuca National Park has -If an important recreational area, providing means for sports and the contemplation of nature.
The existence of some landmarks and symbols of the city of Rio de Janeiro, and even the country, such as the Christ the Redeemer statue, the Sugar Loaf, the Chinese view, the Chapel Mayrink the Bureau of the Emperor and the Parque Lage, transformed the Park at a point of tourist attraction of international level. With the multiple interfaces between city and forest land management presents complex and intense way. The daily life of the unit is permeated by the coexistence of such diverse subjects as public safety, religious practices, forest fires, research, monitoring, management, media, film production, sports, tourism, social welfare, environmental education, participation and social control, volunteers, contracts, licensing, enforcement and policy.